You want to install command line Python tools and make them available. You want to type
vd and have it run a version you installed.
You could pip install into the system Python but that leads to all sorts of fun (what happens when you upgrade your Python or when two CLI tools have conflicting dependencies, or won’t even work with your system Python?).
pip install --local and shunt it into your
~/.local/bin. This mostly works but has some of the same problems as above. At least it’s not messing with your system.
You could use Homebrew but I’ve found two problems with this: the first is you are beholden to the Homebrew upgrade schedule and, this affects me anyway, the second is every time you upgrade the Homebrew Python it seems to mess up all your brew installed python apps.
If you’re on Linux you could use whatever comes with your package manager but 99% of the time it’s a very old version of the tool.
I also experimented with creating a
~/.virtualenv/tool virtualenv per tool and symlinking into my
~/.local/bin, this mostly works. Can be a pain to manage though.
A Solution: pipx
pipx install sometool creates a virtualenv, pip installs the tool and makes all the
bin/* commands available in
~/.local/bin. As a bonus you can easily upgrade versions and have different pythons for each tool. As a further bonus each tool can have wildly incompatible library dependencies without any problems as each lives in a separate virtual environment.
I usually opt for the non-homebrew installation instructions:
$ python3 -m pip install --user pipx $ python3 -m pipx ensurepath # Optional: shell completions $ pipx completions
This plays well with asdf to have a completely self contained setup.
Usage is pretty straight forward: where you would use pip use pipx.
$ pipx install jupyterlab installed package jupyterlab 2.2.9, Python 3.9.0 These apps are now globally available - jlpm - jupyter-lab - jupyter-labextension - jupyter-labhub done! ✨ 🌟 ✨ $ which jupyter-lab /Users/mick/.local/bin/jupyter-lab
Upgrading a Package
You can upgrade a package using the
$ pipx upgrade ipython ipython is already at latest version 7.19.0 (location: /Users/mick/.local/pipx/venvs/ipython)
More interesting is the
upgrade-all which upgrades everything:
$ pipx upgrade-all Versions did not change after running 'pip upgrade' for each package 😴
Injecting More Packages Into a Tool
This is really handy for somehing like
ipython which usually wants a bunch of other libraries like
You can use the
inject command to do this:
$ pipx inject ipython pytz iso8601 tzdata injected package pytz into venv ipython done! ✨ 🌟 ✨ injected package iso8601 into venv ipython done! ✨ 🌟 ✨ injected package tzdata into venv ipython done! ✨ 🌟 ✨
You can see what’s injected with the
list --include-injected command:
$ pipx list --include-injected venvs are in /Users/mick/.local/pipx/venvs apps are exposed on your $PATH at /Users/mick/.local/bin ... package ipython 7.19.0, Python 3.9.0 - iptest - iptest3 - ipython - ipython3 Injected Packages: - iso8601 0.1.13 - pytz 2020.1 - tzdata 2020.2 ...
Every day I usually run this:
$ pipx upgrade-all
This keeps my pipx managed CLI tools fresh.
A Note on Fiddly C Dependencies
Some packages don’t have pre-made wheels for your particular platform and Python combination, so you might need to help them and point to libraries for C extensions.
This is typically done by setting environment variables to point at libraries for the C builds.
For example: on my setup pgcli couldn’t easily build psycopg2 which depended on OpenSSL. Since I’m using Homebrew I need to give a hand locating dependencies:
# sh/bash/zsh PKG_CONFIG_PATH="/firstname.lastname@example.org/lib/pkgconfig" \ CPPFLAGS="-Iemail@example.com/include" \ LDFLAGS="-Lfirstname.lastname@example.org/lib" \ pipx install pgcli # fish set -lx PKG_CONFIG_PATH "/email@example.com/lib/pkgconfig" set -lx CPPFLAGS "-Ifirstname.lastname@example.org/include" set -lx LDFLAGS "-Lemail@example.com/lib" pipx install pgcli
Upgrading Your Python Version
If you upgrade your Python version you can either use it in pipx with
pipx install --python pythonNew.Version some-package or